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Injectable bone substitutes can repair bone defect via percutaneous injection, including organic bone graft materials and inorganic bone graft materials. Furthermore, some materials considered as vector can composite with cells to generate tissue engineering materials, which are injected into bone graft to improve fusion rate. The development of injectable bone substitutes provides a new way to treat some relative diseases. Here, the article was divided three parts to introduce biological characteristics and clinical application of organic bone substitute materials, inorganic bone substitute materials, and bone tissue engineering vector materials. Although bone tissue engineering research achieves some effects initially, there are still a lot of problems, such as collection and preparation of extracellular matrix materials, composite and transplantation of cell and vector; all of them need to be further studied.