The main materials served as oral insulin carrier is polymer materials and liposome. The research regarding natural polymer materials mainly concentrates on the polysaccharide research. The liposome has the similar membrane structure with cells, which has good biological compatibility, but it has insufficiently stability. Therefore, we mainly study the surface-modified liposome. Synthetic polymer has many different types of morphologies. Microspheres, hydrogel, and vesicles are mainly used as the oral insulin carriers. Though there are many domestic and foreign studies concerning polymer materials and the liposome serving as drug carriers in delivering insulin, no practical application was reported in treatment of diabetes. The main reason is that the oral insulin delivery has low bioavailability with poor stability. With the development of new dosage-form, the medicine carrier material and the drug manufacture technology, oral dosage forms of insulin with safety, convenience, and stable will be appeared in future.