At present, the research regarding repair of spinal cord mainly focuses on tissue engineering. Neural tissue engineering materials provide three-dimensional template for tissue regeneration and also environment for synthesis of extracellular matrix. This paper summarizes the types of nerve transplant materials and the research progress in application for treatment of spinal cord injury, so as to provide theoretical evidence for repair of spinal cord injury. But some problems exist in application of nerve cell scaffold materials for repair of spinal cord injury: poor mechanical properties lead to slow degradation speed, causing difficulties in tissue reconstruction with respect to velocity and in subsequent reconstruction of porous three-dimensional scaffold. In recent years, novel biomaterials with specific repair function have been made by the engineering method through combining the biological molecule with specific signal identification function and available materials, which is an advanced project in the current field of biomaterials.