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Xinjiang is a rare region where populations of minority and Han nationalities live together. There have been no confirmative reports describing race difference in living donor kidney transplantation between population of minority nationality and population of Han nationality.To summarize and analyze Xinjiang living kidney transplantation and clinical experience to provide clinical guidance.A retrospective analysis of clinical data of living kidney transplantation recipients who underwent kidney transplantation between 1999 and 2010 in Xinjiang. Preoperative general condition and postoperative complications of the living kidney recipients, and graft survival rate after transplantation in population of minority nationality versus population of Han nationality were analyzed. One-way analysis of variance was performed to analyze various factors that may influence graft survival rate.A total of 178 patients provided complete follow up data, including 131 patients of minority nationality and 47 patients of Han nationality. The graft survival rate was slightly higher, but not significantly, in the recipients of Han nationality than in those of minority nationality. Cox analysis of factors that may influence survival rate of grafts showed that acute rejection greatly influences graft survivals. These findings suggest that the short- and medium-term graft survival rate is similar between populations of different nationalities in Xinjiang who receive living kidney transplantation and acute rejection is the important factor that influences graft survival rate.