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Green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are transplanted into rats with severe acute pancreatitis for easy in vitro tracing in animals because of the characteristic of carrying fluorescence.To investigate the distribution of green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in various organs of rats with severe acute pancreatitis.Green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated directly by adherence. After reaching 90% confluency, cells were digested, passaged, and proliferated. After three passages, cell immunophenotype of CD29+, CD90+, CD34-, CD45- were determined. Sprague-Dawley rat model of severe acute pancreatitis were established by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct under the microscope. 1 hour later, cells at a density of 2×106/rat were injected into rats with severe acute pancreatitis via tail vein. At 6, 12, 24 hours, the liver, kidney, brain, lung, pancreas, and intestine were harvested for pathological examination. The pathological changes of the pancreas and the distribution of green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in various organs of rats with severe acute pancreatitis as well as gray scale values were determined.The pancreas was more seriously destroyed with the time and it was most seriously destroyed at 24 hours. 91.1% of green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse mesenchymal stem cells were positive for CD29, 93.5% positive for CD90,0.82% positive for CD34, and 2.22% positive for CD45. After injection of stem cells, green fluorescence was observed in each organ and enhanced with time. The gray scale of green fluorescence was highest in the kidney tissue and lowest in the brain tissue. These findings suggest that the transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be stably distributed in each organ of rats with severe acute pancreatitis.