In the treatment of bone defects, there has been a series of major scientific breakthroughs in the field of bone repair substitute materials in recent years, and a lot of bone repair substitute materials have been made. At present, there are many kinds of bone repair substitute materials in clinic, and each kind of material has its advantages and disadvantages. Proper selection and application are the practical problems faced to the trauma orthopedic surgeons, and that is worthy for discussion and scrutiny.OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the biological properties of three kinds of bone repair substitute materials through relative analysis on the application of autologous bone, allograft bone and bone substitute materials which is conductive for the orthopedic surgeons a better understanding of physicochemical and biological properties of several bone repair substitute materials and further improve the diagnosis and treatment.METHODS:
Artificial bone materials play an irreplaceable role in the repairing of bone defects and have achieved a great clinical effect, but, the recent clinical effect was not the final result of the comparison with traditional materials. There still lacked of experimental evidence on the verification of the security and stability of the artificial bone material, and yet long-term clinical observation was needed to identify the exact effect. Looking for the artificial bone material suppression with good biological characteristics was the orthopedic research hot spot. The experimental data of the comprehensive comparison of physicochemical and biological properties and security of three kinds of bone repair substitute materials, including the autologous bone, allograft bone and artificial bone material were analyzed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
①In the bone defects repairing, we measured from the repair quality, immune rejection and the spread of the disease, and finding the autologous bone is the best choice and has become the gold standard of bone graft. However, the disadvantages of limited sources, complications on the harvesting area and the trauma of second surgery area caused by bone harvesting have limit its clinical application. ②The source of allograft bone is larger than autologous bone, but it has the disadvantage of the immune rejection between the host, and it may cause the infectious diseases such as hepatitis virus. ③The artificial bone van is formed rapidly, and with the help of computer-aided design and auxiliary production, it can better synthesis the bone repair substitute materials which are close to the morphology of the defected bone. But the osteoinductive and of the artificial bone materials are not satisfied. ④There are some shortages of the existing bone substitute materials which are unable to fully meet the needs of clinical quality. The substitute materials which can replace the natural bone and repair the bone defects in the future should be the preponderant combination and be the development trend of bone repair substitute materials.