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All reasons for tooth extraction are able to cause the alveolar ridge absorption, resulting in jaw bone deficiency, which is harmful to the denture and dental implant repair.Through the establishment of an alveolar ridge model in rats after tooth extraction, to observe the effect of nano-hydroxyapatete/collagen/P17-bone morphogenetic protein-2 on tooth crypt repair and alveolar ridge absorption.Thirty-six healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experimental group, control group and simple material group, and each group had 12 rats. The right mandibular incisors were removed in all the rats. nano-hydroxyapatete/collagen/P17-bone morphogenetic protein-2, nano-hydroxyapatete/collagen/bone morphogenetic protein-2 and nano-hydroxyapatete/collagen were implanted into the tooth crypt of the three groups, respectively.After 2, 4, 8 weeks, alveolar ridge relative length in the experimental group and the control group was more than that in the simple material group (P < 0.05),but there was no difference between the experimental and control groups (P > 0.05). After 2, 4, 8 weeks, the experimental group and the control group had better new blood vessels and new bone formation speed and quality than the simple material group. Percentage of new bone area accounting for bone defect area was increased with time after 2, 4, 8 weeks, which was higher in the experimental and control groups than the simple material group (P < 0.05) and higher in the control group than the experimental group. These findings indicate that nano-hydroxyapatete/collagen/P17-bone morphogenetic protein-2 material has good bone induction ability, and dental implant can promote the healing immediately after tooth extraction and delay alveolar ridge absorption.Li SC, Gong LQ, Du XY. Nano-hydroxyapatete/collagen/P17-bone morphogenetic protein-2 for alveolar ridge repair after tooth extraction. Zhongguo Zuzhi Gongcheng Yanjiu. 2013;17(12):2138-2144.