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Isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine has good biological activity, and under certain conditions, it can self-assemble into isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine nanofiber hydrogel scaffold which is a natural biomimetic material for the spinal cord matrix.To observe the effects of self-assembled isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine nanofiber gel on proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived neural stem cells in vitro.Passage 2 bone marrow derived neural stem cells were co-cultured with isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine as experimental group, neural stem cells cultured alone counted as control group, and isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine was set as blank control group. Cell proliferation rate and differentiation proportion of neural stem cells into neurons were measured at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days after culture using Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used for detecting cytotoxicity of passage 2 bone marrow derived neural stem cells from new born Sprague-Dawley rats.Cell proliferation rate and differentiation proportion of neural stem cells into neurons were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control groups at each time (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation in the experimental and control groups peaked at day 7. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay detected no cytotoxicity of the isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine. Taken together, isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine nanofiber gel has a better biological activity, and can increase the differentiation proportion of neural stem cells into neurons.Tu LY, Kan R, Yang MK, Xu T, Sheng WB, Ma Y, Bi XJ. Self-assembling nanofiber gel controls the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Zhongguo Zuzhi Gongcheng Yanjiu. 2013;17(12): 2145-2152.