Transplanting seed cells into suitable vehicle materials can construct tissue-engineered nerve bridging graft with bioactivity and corresponding function. Tissue-engineered nerve bridging graft from stem cells and acellular allogeneic nerve is becoming a important transplanted substance in the field of long-segment peripheral nerve defects, and has been some promising prospect.OBJECTIVE:
To summarize the application of stem cells and the acellular allogenic acellular nerve scaffold in the peripheral nerve deficitMETHODS:
A computer-based search of PubMed and CNKI was performed by the authors to retrieve articles concerning stem cells and acellular allogeneic nerves in the repair of long-segmental peripheral nerve defects published from January 1998 to February 2014. The keywords were “stem cells, peripheral nerve defect, acellular allogeneic nerves” in English and Chinese, respectively. Totally 1 013 literatures were retrieved, among which 97 met the inclusion criteria.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
First, stem cells converge at the lesion site because of their own chemotaxis and various chemotactic factors released after tissue lesion to secrete a large amount of nutrients that can promote the reparation of the damaged nerve function. Secondly, with the help of the surrounding environment and the intrinsic differentiation bias, stem cells can differentiate and replace the damaged and dead nerve cells. Besides, stem cells transplantation combined with tissue engineering materials can reduce glial scar formation, and promote the repair of peripheral nerve defects. Stem cells can enhance the junction between nerve synapses and create a new neural circuit. Neural stem cells have the potential of differentiating into other nerve cells. However, the differentiation and regulation mechanism is not explicit. There is no effective way to improve the microcirculation in order to turn more stem cells into neurons and oligodendrocytes and maintain the cellular activity. So, the effective inhibition of the immune rejection in early stage after transplantation is the key of our study. After the nerve transplantation, how to improve the speed and quality of the neuranagensis and maintain the tissue structure and function of the target organ needs a long way of fumble.