Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocyte-like cells under the conditions of transforming growth factor beta and cyclical tensile strain

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Transforming growth factor-β has been shown to exert an obvious induction effect on the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes. Cyclical tensile strain simulates mechanical environment of chondrocytes in the body, and plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation and differentiation.

OBJECTIVE:

To discuss the synergy of transforming growth factor-β and cyclical tensile strain in inducing the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocyte-like cells.

METHODS:

A total of 10 2-month-old New Zealand rabbits were selected. Bone needle was used to penetrate the medullary cavity of bone. 3.0-4.0 mL of bone marrow was extracted for isolation and culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Passage 3 cells were randomly assigned to four groups: blank, transforming growth factor-β, cyclical tensile strain and cyclical tensile strain + transforming growth factor-β groups. After 1, 3 and 6 days, cells were obtained. General morphology was observed using safranin O staining. Glycosaminoglycan levels were detected by alcian blue staining. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels in supernatant were measured using ELISA. Type II collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA relative expression was detected using RT-PCR.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:

Safranin O staining showed fusiform or irregular triangular cells. Cell number and matrix secretion increased in each experimental group than in blank group. Glycosaminoglycan levels in the supernatant were greater in the transforming growth factor-β and cyclical tensile strain + transforming growth factor-β groups than in the blank group (P < 0.05). Type II collagen mRNA relative expression was higher in the cyclical tensile strain + transforming growth factor-β group than in the blank group (P < 0.05). Results indicated that transforming growth factor-β and cyclical tensile strain could induce the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, showing an apparent cooperative action.

Subject headings:

bone marrow; mesenchymal stem cells; chondrocytes; transforming growth factor beta; biomechanics; cell differentiation

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