Repairing critical-size segmental defects: morphology of tissue engineering bone scaffolds and its effects on cell loading

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Tissue engineering bone application for repairing critical-size segmental defects is still in research stage. The ideal construction methods have not yet been found.


To review the research literatures on tissue engineering bone scaffold material, its shape and effect on the loading of seeding cells, seek appropriate engineered bone scaffolds which are capable of loading a large number of cells effectively and probably, and provide a new way of repairing segmental bone defects.


The first author performed a data retrieval of PubMed and Wanfang databases from 1994 to 2013, to search the articles addressing the construction method of tissue engineering bone scaffold, and reviewed the literatures systematically.


A total of 379 references were retrieved, including 161 articles in Chinese and 218 articles in English. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 53 articles were finally involved in the analysis. The analysis results indicated that, the needed volume of bone tissue engineering scaffolds for critical-sized section bone defect reconstruction is big, which needs to load a huge number of seed cells. If there is no suitable forms and shapes for cell adhesion, the property of so-called engineered bone is similar to pure artificial bone implants. The effective load of seed cells on engineering bone scaffold material and keeping the activity is the first step in clinical practice, as well as the important guarantee for loading bioactive seed cells. Hence, a more simple and accurate detection method for loading cell quantity is needed. Looking into the retrieved content, effective load cell quantity and its bioactivity are detected by indirect methods, supporting the effectiveness of cell seeding. Some methods can guarantee the cell quantity and seeding pattern, the real load is unknown as well as the activity. Fabricating engineering bone scaffold into special form and shape are easy to effective seeding, proliferation and maintaining the biomechanical performance, inducing osteogenesis, and finally detecting the load cell quantity and activity on the scaffold through the simple and direct method.

Subject headings:

tissue engineering; biomechanics; stents; organism forms


a grant from Tissue Engineering Laboratory of Hand Surgery of Liaoning Province, No. 201104523; Natural Science and Technology Fund of Liaoning Province, No. 201102217; Excellent Talents Fund of Shenyang Medical College, No. 20081024


Zeng XL, Yang CL. Repairing critical-size segmental defects: morphology of tissue engineering bone scaffolds and its effects on cell loading. Zhongguo Zuzhi Gongcheng Yanjiu. 2014;18(29):4717-4723.

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