Nitric oxide (NO) has been the topic of many studies regarding its therapeutic benefit in patients with cardiac disease. Recent studies are now revealing potential advantages for healthy individuals and endurance athletes. This article discusses current research focused on NO augmentation in relation to muscular strength and endurance. Arginine, an NO precursor, has been more extensively studied as a supplement for performance enhancement. Its role in cardiovascular endurance and strength training is assessed in individuals with various athletic backgrounds. The therapeutic role of NO in the treatment of tendinopathies is also reviewed.