Zany Over Zika Virus: An Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment Modalities

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Abstract

Zika virus has been a recent international public health concern with outbreaks occurring in the Americas, Caribbean, and Pacific. The zoonotic infection is primarily spread to humans by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. The virus also can be transmitted via bodily fluids, sexual intercourse, and maternal-fetal vertical transmission. Asymptomatic presentation is common. If symptoms do occur, individuals display a low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis 2 to 7 d after infection. Infection is concerning due to its associated fetal effects in pregnant women and relationship with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Diagnosis should be suspected in individuals with the appropriate symptomatology and exposure history. Diagnostic tests for the Zika virus are available and vary based on symptom duration. Treatment is supportive, and surveillance is suggested for all pregnant women. Prior infection is thought to provide immunity toward future exposures. Prevention and education is key in decreasing the spread of disease.

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