Reparative regeneration in different periods following nephrectomy and the application of low-dose radiation has been studied by means of light and electron microscopy. Experimentally induced ischemia resulted in the destruction of renal corpuscles, the perishing of tubular epithelial cells, and the proliferation of connective tissue. Reparative regeneration is based on aseptic inflammation and its phase duration depends on the extent of organ injury. In nephrectomized rats, reparative regeneration is accompanied by necrosis and the deposition of calcium in the cortical substance. Calcium plays an important role in kidney metabolism and its increased content is characteristic of degenerative changes. The experiments showed that the use of low-dose radiation does not accelerate the process of reparative regeneration in rat kidney.