The vegetation cover in the north of Central Siberia has been assessed from lichenological data. The approaches and methods of lichen-based indication of the state of vegetation cover have been developed with the application of the data on diversity of lichens and lichen synusias, their projective cover and morphological deviations. The species of lichens and synusias that can be used for indication purposes have been defined. The changes in the characteristics of the lichen component in vegetation cover under the increasing chemical air pollution caused by industrial plants have been examined. The early deviations are indicated by morphological changes of lichen thalli, species depletion, and diversity of lichen synusias. Practical recommendations on lichen indication of the vegetation cover in the north of Siberia have been given.