The soil was sampled in the zone of long-term mining of a gold placer. The total contents of heavy metals, mobile forms of these elements, and the quantitative characteristics of the ecological trophic groups of the soil microbial community have been determined. The soil samples are characterized by stable enrichment with such elements as Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, and Mo. The amount of mobile forms (relative to total content) varies from 0.5 to 54% for different elements. It has been shown that the abundance of the main ecological-trophic groups of microorganisms depends on degree of pollution. The correlations between increased concentrations of the mobile forms of some heavy metals and microbiological indices are established and illustrated.