Non-rapid eye movement parasomnias are unique physical or experiential phenomena that disrupt sleep. Non-rapid eye movement parasomnias are common in children, but they typically outgrow them. Sleep-stage shifts caused by sleep-disordered breathing and associated arousals may be precipitating events for episodes of parasomnia. Seizure disorders should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for the evaluation of parasomnias. Violent or injurious sleepwalking should be rapidly evaluated and treated.