Adult stem cells research has been considered the most advanced sort of medical-scientific research, particularly stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), which represent an immature stem cell population. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge concerning SHED from full-text scientific publications from 2003 to 2015, available in English language and based on the keyword and/or abbreviations ‘stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)', and individually presented as to the properties of SHED, immunomodulatory properties of SHED and stem cell banking. In summary, these cell populations are easily accessible by noninvasive procedures and can be isolated, cultured and expanded in vitro, successfully differentiated in vitro and in vivo into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural cells, and present low immune reactions or rejection following SHED transplantation. Furthermore, SHED are able to remain undifferentiated and stable after long-term cryopreservation. In conclusion, the high proliferative capacity, easy access, multilineage differentiation capacity, noninvasiveness and few ethical concerns make stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth the most valuable source of stem cells for tissue engineering and cell-based regenerative medicine therapies.