Angiotensin II/Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade Affects Osteoporosis via the AT1/AT2-Mediated cAMP-Dependent PKA Pathway

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Animal studies have reported on the benefits of ARB on bone mass. However, the underlying mechanism for angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptor blockade (ARB) in regulating bone mass remains elusive. Since high levels of plasma and urine cAMP are observed in osteoporotic and hypertensive patients, we hypothesized that cAMP may be an important molecule for the downstream events of the activation of AT receptors, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, in regulating bone turnover. In this study, micro-CT and X-ray analyses indicated that AngII decreased bone mass via biasing bone resorption over bone formation in osteoporotic mice. However, these adverse effects were blocked by olmesartan and PD123319. In vitro, AngII was shown to downregulate osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, but to upregulate osteoclastic activity by mainly affecting osteoblasts producing osteoclastogenesis-associated key soluble factors, including M-CSF and RANKL. Similarly, ARB treatment exhibited antagonistic effects on AngII. In conclusion, osteoblasts are the directly targeted cells. ARB1 exhibits a greater capacity to increase bone mass than ARB2. The cAMP-dependent PKA pathway plays an important role in AngII/ARB on changing bone mass.

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