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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the proliferation and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from palatal adipose tissue (PAT) and lipoaspirated adipose tissue (LAT). Materials and Methods: PATs were obtained from 2 healthy female patients undergoing surgery for gingival recession, and LATs were obtained from 2 healthy female patients undergoing plastic surgery. LAT- and PAT-derived MSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry using MSC-specific surface markers. The multilineage differentiation capacity of the MSCs was analyzed. The expression of immunophenotyping, embryonic, and differentiation markers was compared between both MSC lines. The proliferation of PAT- and LAT-MSCs was evaluated using a real-time cell analyzer, and telomerase activity was determined using an ELISA-based TRAP assay. Stem cells isolated from PAT and LAT were analyzed by real-time PCR and whole genome array analysis. Results: The cells isolated from PAT had MSC characteristics. In addition, PAT-MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic potential than LAT-MSCs. Although the proliferation and telomerase activities of LAT-MSCs were higher than those of PAT-MSCs, the difference was not statistically significant. The level of embryonic stem cell markers (Oct4 and Nanog) was higher in LAT-MSCs than in PAT-MSCs. The whole genome array analysis demonstrated that 255 gene sequences were differentially expressed, with more than a twofold change in expression. Conclusions: This is the first comparative analysis of the isolation and characterization of MSCs from PAT and LAT. PAT is an accessible source of MSCs, which could be used in periodontal and craniofacial tissue engineering.