Treatment of Orbital Medial Wall Fractures with Titanium Mesh Plates Using Retrocaruncular Approach: Outcomes with Different Techniques

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Surgical management of medial wall orbital fractures should be considered to avoid diplopia and posttraumatic enophthalmos. Treatment of these fractures remains a challenge for the maxillofacial surgeon because of complex anatomy and limited vision. This article aims to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes in the repair of medial orbital wall fractures using a retrocaruncular approach and titanium meshes, comparing the placement of the titanium mesh with three different techniques: (1) conventional free hand under direct vision, (2) with the assistance of an endoscope, and (c) with the assistance of a navigation system. Eighteen patients who underwent surgery for orbital medial wall fracture were enrolled in the study. On the basis of the implant placement technique, three groups were identified: group 1 (CONV), conventional free hand under direct vision; group 2 (ENDO), endoscopically assisted; group 3 (NAVI), a navigational system assisted (BrainLab, Feldkirchen, Germany). The postoperative quality of orbital reconstruction was assessed as satisfactory in 12 cases, good in 4 cases, and unsatisfactory in 2 cases. Particularly in group 1 (CONV) in four patients out of eight, the posterior ledge of the fracture was not reached by the implant and in one patient the mesh hinged toward the ethmoid. In group 3 (NAVI), in one patient out of five, the posterior ledge of the fracture was not reached. In conclusion, titanium orbital mesh plates and retrocaruncular approach are a reliable method to obtain an accurate orbital medial wall reconstruction. The use of endoscopic assistance through the surgical incisions improves accuracy of treatment allowing better visualization of the surgical field. Navigation aided surgery is a feasible technique especially for complex orbital reconstruction to improve predictability and outcomes in orbital repair.

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