Maxillomandibular Syngnathia: 3D Planning and Review of the Literature

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Abstract

Congenital maxillomandibular fusion or syngnathia is a rare craniofacial disorder with only 26 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a congenital complex zygomatico-mandibular syngnathia associated with a palatal cleft, posterior maxilla and turbinate agenesia, mild hemifacial microsomia, and a disordered dental eruption. The patient has the highest age (15 years) at diagnosis described in the literature. 3D planning of the surgery was performed to study the patient's anatomy and design the necessary osteotomies to separate the jaws. En bloc removal of the fused fragment with bilateral coronoidectomy and aggressive long-term physiotherapy for 3 months led to a stable increase in mouth opening from 0 to 21 mm inter-incisor distance. The patient reported an improvement in speech, was able to eat without restriction regarding food consistency, and could maintain a good oral hygiene.

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