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Renal artery stenosis in its early phase is now considered a treatable cause of hypertension. The most common causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS) are atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. It is important to be familiar with the various modalities for diagnosis as well as treatment of RAS, especially due to the increasing availability of minimally invasive therapies. These diagnostic modalities include ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine scans. RAS if not treated leads to progressive development of renal insufficiency and renal failure. The minimally invasive therapies for treatment of RAS include percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stent placement. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the diagnosis of renal arterial stenosis using newer imaging technology, as well as to familiarize the readers with the advances made in the realm of endovascular treatment.