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In the classical view, the hormone angiotensin II (Ang II) mediates its action via two major receptors, namely the Ang II type-1 receptor (AT1R) and the type-2 receptor (AT2R). Several recent reviews implicate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. Research on AT2R has long been hampered by at least three potential challenges, (i) the low expression level of the AT2R in the adult, (ii) the atypical signaling pathways of AT2R and (iii) the absence of appropriate selective ligands. Indeed, apart a few exceptions, the role of the AT2R was in fact revealed by the results of simultaneous treatment with Ang II and AT1R blockers or in AT2R-deficient mice. The first aim of this review is to summarize current paradigms concerning the role of the AT2R in adipocyte differentiation and in metabolic disorders related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Secondly, we will highlight the potential utility of selective AT2R agonists in clarifying potential roles of the AT2R in adipocyte physiology. We summarized our findings using a selective and high affinity nonpeptide ligand of the AT2R and demonstrate that AT2R is involved in adipocyte differentiation and may improve insulin sensitivity in a model of insulin resistance, in addition to increase vasodilation and reduce inflammation in adipose tissue. Thus the recent development of orally active, selective AT2R agonists should facilitate efforts to elucidate the distinct roles of the AT2R in physiology, including adipocyte physiology.