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Recent advances in our understanding of the phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of Tourette syndrome are discussed. Tourette syndrome appears to involve dysfunction of limbic and somatosensory “traffic” through the basal ganglia, within corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuits. Dynamic alterations in the balance of these inputs may dictate the manifestations (sensory, motor, affective, and behavioral) of the disorder at any given time. Individualized assessment and treatment are the keys to optimal treatment of this condition.