Some lipid indexes have been proposed for the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI) were recently introduced in the literature to assess the cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to evaluated LTI [total cholesterol x triglycerides x lipoprotein(a)/high density lipoprotein] and LPI [total cholesterol x triglycerides x lipoprotein(a) x apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I] in subjects who attended a clinical laboratory.Methods
We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional observational study. Through software-BI SADIG, used for data management of the clinical laboratory, 285 subjects were selected, from 20 to 70 years who performed the measurements of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and apolipoproteins A-I and B, within a period of two years. Those patients who had plasma triglyceride levels greater than 400 mg/dL were excluded.Results
LTI and LPI median and interquartile values was 8.8 (3.4 - 19.3) and 29.7 (11.2 - 62.3), respectively (n = 285). Plasma levels of Lp(a) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in women [13.2 mg/dL (7.1 – 31.7), n=161] when compared with men [24.2 mg/dL (9.1 – 36.8), n=124]. LTI values were significantly higher in men [10.5 (4.2 – 22.5)] than in women [8.1 (2.9 – 15.9)]. LPI values were also significantly higher in men [34.8 (12.2 – 68.6)] than in women [24.0 (10.0 – 58.7)]. No significant difference was observed between men and women for TC, TG, apoB, apo A-I, HDL or LDL. There was no significant difference for LPI and LTI values when the participants were divided and grouped by the age ranges 20-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-70 years.Conclusions
The present study shows that LPI and LTI values were significantly higher in men than in women, regardless of whether both sexes showed no significant differences in traditional lipid and apolipoprotein profiles. Although LPI and LTI values are not yet used routinely, they may play a relevant and additional role in the assessment of the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD. The LTI and LPI values were so far unknown in our population and additional studies are essential to authoritatively elucidate the reference values for men and women.