Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder and is recognized as one of the most important health threats of our time. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel group of non-coding small RNAs that have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including glucose homeostasis. Recent research has suggested that miRNAs play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its related cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the aberrant expression of miRNAs in diabetes and examines their role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of miRNAs as blood biomarkers and examine the potential of therapeutic interventions targeting miRNAs in diabetes.