Purpose: The tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) alters the structure and function of long-lived proteins. A number of studies have shown that tissue accumulation of AGEs correlates with the severity of diabetic complications. Proteins containing AGEs are highly immunogenic and anti-AGEs antibodies were found in sera of diabetic rats and human.
Methods: Considering the potential use of anti-AGE antibodies as a marker of AGEs deposition during diabetes, we have investigated, by competitive ELISA, the presence of anti-AGEs antibodies in sera of 93 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arterial hypertension (AH) (mean age 61,4±11,3 years, diabetes duration 9,88±3,12 years; hypertension duration 9,28±4,98). These values were compared to serum antibodies to AGEs in 42 age and sex matched controls. Diabetics were divided in two groups according to presence- Group 1 (n=67) or absence- Group 2 (n=26) of microangiopathy.
Results: Serum anti-AGEs antibodies levels in patients with T2DM and AH were statistically significantly higher that these in control group (1.390±0.394 vs. 1.184±0.325) F=4.72, P=0.03. Group 1 showed significantly higher levels of anti-AGEs antibodies than healthy controls (1.399±0.376 vs. 1.184±0.325) F=4,75 P=0.03. Anti-AGEs antibodies levels are highest in patients with vascular complications than these in all other groups. Antibodies against AGEs correlate with systolic blood pressure (r=0.17); (p=0.05), BMI (r=0.25); (p=0.01), total cholesterol (r=0.19); (p=0.04).
In our study we found higher precentege of positive patients for anti-AGEs antibodies (mean+2SD) in patients from Group 1 than Group 2. Six patients from 43 (14%) with microalbuminuria were positive for anti-AGEs antibodies, compared to 3 from 26 (10%) of patients without complications. Five patients from 20 (25%) with retinopathy were positive for AGE-antibodies ,while 4 from 26 (15%) in Group 2 were positive.
Conclusions: In conclusion, our study showed that investigation of the levels of anti-AGEs antibodies might be associated with higher risk for development of vascular wall damage and severity of diabetic late complications.