Differential role of TIMP2 and TIMP3 in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Aims

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) can mediate myocardial remodelling, hypertrophy, and fibrosis in heart disease. We investigated the impact of TIMP2 vs. TIMP3 deficiency in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced myocardial remodelling and cardiac dysfunction.

Methods and results

TIMP2−/−, TIMP3−/−, and wild-type (WT) mice received Ang II/saline (Alzet pump) for 2 weeks. Ang II infusion resulted in enhanced myocardial hypertrophy and lack of fibrosis in TIMP2−/−, and conversely, excess fibrosis without hypertrophy in TIMP3−/− mice. Echocardiographic imaging revealed preserved ejection fraction in all groups; however, exacerbated left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction was detected in Ang II-infused TIMP2−/− and TIMP3−/− mice, despite the suppressed Ang II-induced hypertension in TIMP3−/− mice. Enhanced hypertrophy in TIMP2−/− mice impaired active relaxation, while excess fibrosis in TIMP3−/− mice increased LV passive stiffness. Adult WT cardiomyocytes, only when co-cultured with cardiac fibroblasts, exhibited Ang II-induced hypertrophy which was suppressed in TIMP3−/− cardiomyocytes. In vitro studies on adult cardiofibroblasts (quiescent and cyclically stretched), and in vivo analyses, revealed that the increased fibrosis in TIMP3−/−-Ang II hearts is due to post-translational stabilization and deposition of collagen by matricellular proteins [osteopontin and Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC)], which correlated with increased inflammation, rather than increased de novo synthesis. Reduced cross-linking enzymes, LOX and PLOD1, could underlie suppressed collagen deposition in TIMP2−/−-Ang II hearts.

Conclusion

TIMP2 and TIMP3 play fundamental and differential roles in mediating pathological remodelling, independent from their MMP-inhibitory function. TIMP2−/− and TIMP3−/− mice provide a unique opportunity to study myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis independently, and their impact on cardiac dysfunction.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles