Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is released in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as bacterial products. Either porins or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated THP-1 cells to release IL-8 after 24 h. We have previously reported that stimulation of monocytic cells with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium porins led to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). In this report, we demonstrate, using two potent and selective inhibitors of MEK activation by Raf-1 (PD-098059) and p38 (SB-203580), that both ERK1/2 and p38 pathways play a key role in the production of IL-8 by porins and LPS. Porin-stimulated expression of activating protein 1 (AP-1) and correlated IL-8 release is also inhibited by PD-098059 or SB-203580 indicating that the Raf-1/MEK1-MEK2/MAPK cascade is required for their activation.
Also PTKs modulate the pathway that control IL-8 gene expression, in fact its expression is abolished by tyrphostin. By using N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal-H (ALLN) an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity, we also observed IL-8 release modulation.
Our results elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms by which AP-1 and NF-κB regulate IL-8 release and open new strategies for the design of specific molecules that will modulate IL-8 effects in various infectious diseases.