The aim of this study was to identify key cytokine polymorphisms associated with disease susceptibility, clinical phenotype, and outcome in patients with chronic anterior uveitis (CAU) as compared to those with recurrent self-limiting anterior uveitis (RAU). One hundred fifty seven British Caucasian patients with anterior uveitis were identified and divided into those where the inflammatory process lasted less than 3 months (RAU = 118) and those where the inflammation persisted longer than 3 months (CAU = 39). Patients with CAU were further sub-divided into idiopathic CAU, CAU associated with systemic disease, CAU with and without complications (posterior synechiae, posterior subcapsular lens opacity, raised intraocular pressure, cystoid macular oedema, and poor response to treatment). Sixty-six healthy controls were ethnically matched. TaqMan PCR amplification was used to genotype five single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine genes; IL-1RN+2018, IL-6−174, IL-10−1082, TNF−238, TNF−308 and these were correlated with clinical phenotype.