The IL-1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) is required for IL-33 signaling and soluble AcP enhances the ability of soluble ST2 to inhibit IL-33

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Interleukin (IL)-33 (or IL-1F11) was recently identified as a ligand for the orphan IL-1 receptor family member T1/ST2 (ST2). IL-33 belongs to the IL-1 cytokine family and, upon binding to ST2, induces intracellular signals similar to those utilized by IL-1. The effects of other IL-1 family cytokines are mediated by their binding to a specific receptor and the recruitment of a co-receptor required for elicitation of signaling. The aim of this study was to characterize the co-receptor involved in IL-33 signaling. Immunoprecipitation confirmed that IL-33 specifically binds ST2 and revealed that cellular IL-1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) associates with ST2 in a ligand-dependent manner. Receptor binding measurements demonstrated that the affinity of mouse (m)IL-33 for ST2 is increased by 4-fold in presence of AcP. IL-33 dose-dependently stimulated IL-6 secretion from wild-type (WT) mast cells, while no effect of IL-33 was observed with mast cells derived from AcP-deficient mice. Finally, soluble (s)ST2-Fc and sAcP-Fc acted synergistically to inhibit IL-33 activity. These observations identify AcP as a shared co-receptor within the IL-1 family that is essential for IL-33 signaling and suggest a novel role for sAcP in modulating the activity of IL-33.

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