★ Description of PRRs (particularly NLRs), their role in the development of inflammation. ★ Biological role of IL-1, activation of NFκB and Elk-1 as a result of IL-1RI activation. ★ Mechanisms of EGF action, with particular emphasis of the activation of Elk-1. ★ Role of EGFR signaling in cancer development. ★ Relationship between inflammation and tumorigenesis.
This review focuses on the mechanisms by which the expression of specific genes is regulated by two proteins that are important in inflammation and cancer, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β and epidermal growth factor (EGF). In the review the receptors that recognize factors that cause inflammation are described with main focus on the receptors associated with activation of IL-1β. The function of IL-1β and pathways leading to activation of transcription factors, particularly NFκB and Elk-1 are analyzed. Then the mechanisms of EGF action, with particular emphasis of the activation of Elk-1 are illustrated. The link between aberrant signaling of EGF receptor family members and cancer development is explained. The relationship between inflammation and tumorigenesis is discussed.