Adipokines vaspin and omentin-1 are up-regulated in large for gestational age infants at term

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Abstract

Highlights

★ High vaspin levels in LGA infants may reflect mechanism against insulin resistance. ★ Higher omentin-1 levels in LGA infants probably reflect increased adipose tissue. ★ Umbilical cord omentin-1 levels decrease in vaginally delivered neonates. ★ Insulin levels are significantly elevated as customized centiles increase.

Objective

Large- (LGA) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) infants differ in body fat mass and metabolic/endocrine mechanisms. We aimed to investigate in LGA and AGA infants possible alterations in cord blood levels of insulin and the adipokines vaspin and omentin-1 which are secreted by the adipose tissue and are implicated in insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome.

Methods

Cord blood vaspin, omentin-1 and insulin levels were prospectively measured in 61 LGA and 36 AGA singleton full-term infants. Of the LGA group 13 infants were born from diabetic and 48 from non-diabetic mothers.

Results

Cord blood vaspin and omentin-1 levels were significantly higher in LGA compared with AGA neonates (p = 0.021 and b = 0.115, SE 0.037, p = 0.002, respectively). Umbilical cord omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in neonates delivered vaginally (b = −0.075, SE 0.031, p = 0.016), after controlling for group. Insulin levels increased in proportion to the customized centiles of the infants (b = 0.004, SE = 0.001, p = 0.009). Finally, in the LGA group vaspin levels correlated with omentin-1 serum levels (r = 0.318, p = 0.013).

Conclusions

The increased levels of vaspin observed in LGA infants compared with AGA ones, possibly represent a defensive mechanism against insulin/glucose dysregulation, commonly seen in the former. In addition, the increased omentin-1 levels in the LGA group could possibly reflect the amount of developing adipose tissue in the early stages of life in this group. Alternatively, these levels could reflect the growth-promoting effect of omentin-1 in the fetus. The inflammation associated with vaginal deliveries may account for the lower cord blood omentin-1 levels in neonates delivered by this mode.

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