Necrotic cell death and suppression of T-cell immunity characterized acute liver failure due to drug-induced liver injury

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Abstract

Background & aims:

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and pathophysiology of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) – acute liver failure (ALF).

Methods:

The patients with acute liver injury (ALI) including ALF from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. The hepatic encephalopathy (HE) development rate was compared with the findings from a national survey in Japan. The serum cytokines levels and the findings of a liver function test were evaluated in the DILI patients.

Results:

The HE development rate substantially decreased for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) – and undetermined cause-induced ALI owing to the early prediction system, but not in DILI-ALI. Among the DILI-ALF and AIH-ALF cases, the CK-18 fragment (1480.1 U/L, 3945.4 U/L), IL-8 (82.9 pg/mL, 207.5 pg/mL), IP-10 (1379.6 pg/mL, 3731.2 pg/mL) and MIP-1β (1017.7 pg/mL, 2273.3 pg/mL) levels were lower in the DILI-ALF cases. Among the DILI-ALI and DILI-ALF cases, IL-4 (19.8 pg/mL, 25.4 pg/mL) and RANTES (14028.0 pg/mL, 17804.7 pg/mL) were higher in DILI-ALI, and HMGB-1 (397.1 pg/μL, 326.2 pg/μL) and HGF (2.41 ng/mL, 0.55 ng/mL) were higher in DILI-ALF. We observed that HGF independently associated with DLI-ALF development.

Conclusions:

Despite the low grade apoptosis and inflammation, DILI patients progressed to ALF comparable with that of the AIH patients.

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