Potential gingival crevicular fluid and serum biomarkers by stage of HIV infection

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This study evaluates the potential of gingival crevicular fluid and serum cytokines as HIV stage biomarkers.


Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples from 78 HIV-positive adult male subjects (cases) and 39 HIV-negative male subjects (controls) from Mexico were examined for 17 cytokines using multiplex ELISA. Participants were divided into five subgroups by HIV stage of infection on age-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and antiretroviral therapy (ART), and further correlated to the cytokine levels.


GCF concentrations of IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, G-CSF and MCP-1, as well as serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 showed a statistically significant difference among subgroups. We found a significant effect size correlation on cytokines expression levels. Subjects who were not in ART showed significantly higher levels of some of the analyzed cytokines compared to the rest. We found that GCF IL-8 was a significant predictor for the Non-ART HIV status (p < 0.05). We observed the same result for GCF G-CSF in the ART Short-term group and serum GM-CSF in the ART Long-term subgroup.


Results indicate a high variability of GCF and serum cytokines concentrations and low frequency of their detection in different HIV/ART stages. However, within the limits of the present study, some GCF and serum cytokine concentrations correlate positively. Oral and periodontal innate immunity is affected by HIV viremia and ART. GCF IL-8, G-CSF, as well as serum IL-8, MCP-1 and GM-CSF may be useful biomarkers for the detection of disease presence and/or its severity due to HIV infection and ART use.

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