The local liver ablation with pulsed electric field stimulate systemic immune reaction against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with time-dependent cytokine profile

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Graphical abstractHighlightsIrreversible electroporation ablation affect cytokines.Comprehensive cytokine profile was illustrated.Record the cytokines from tumor-bearing mouse and tumor free porcine liver.Aim:How irreversible electroporation (IRE) affect immune status is still kept unknown. This preclinical study is to investigate its local and systemic immune reaction both on tumor-bearing and tumor free animals.Methods:Liver ablation was performed by a standard IRE instrument and proposal. Altogether 57 tumor bearing mice and 10 tumor-free porcine livers were ablated. The reaction of survival, radiology image, pathologically and immunologically were followed up. The detailed cytokines and chemokines responses were recorded dynamically post IRE ablation.Results:IRE ablation induced coagulation and necrosis in liver. It caused macrophages infiltration, in ablation zone. IRE ablation caused cellular inflammation. It, corrected the abnormal drifted Th2 in HCC back to Th1 status, promoting tumor eradication and host survival. The quantified cytokines and chemokines indicate IRE can stimulate both local immune reaction and systemic immune reaction.Conclusion:Local IRE ablation changes the abnormal drifted Th2 in HCC back to Th1 status, facilitating tumor eradication and host survival.

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