Tumor growth factor-β is an important factor for immunosuppression and tumorgenesis in Polyoma BK virus infection; a systematic review article

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Polyoma BK virus (PBK) is a prevalent human specific virus and the cause of several malignancies in human. The main mechanisms used by PBK to induce/stimulate human cancers are yet to be clarified but it has been proposed that PBK may use several mechanisms to induce/stimulate cancers in human including attenuation of immune responses via up-regulation of immunosuppressor molecules. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a key multifunctional factor from modulation of immunosurveillance to angiogenesis. The key roles of TGF-β in the progression of Th17 and T regulatory subsets, the most important immune cells involved in development of cancers, have been demonstrated. Thus, this review article aims to describe the mechanisms used by PBK in induction/stimulation of human cancers in TGF-β dependent manner.

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