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A common complication in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a chronic inflammatory state and anemia that can be treating by recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Higher required dose of rHuEPO could be expected in patients with higher cytokine levels. Additionally, it is known that peritoneal inflammation can be correlated with systemic inflammation and this could contribute to the compromised rHuEPO required dose in anemic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the association between levels of systemic and local interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-17 and other cytokines and the dose of rHuEPO used by patients undergoing PD for the correction of anemia.Thirty-one patients under PD using rHuEPO were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Plasma and dialysate levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ were determined using the Cytometric Bead Array TM kit (CBA; BD Bioscences, San Jose, CA). The relation between the levels of each cytokine levels and the tertiles of rHuEPO were plotted on box-plot graphics and then the medians of interleukins levels were compared by median comparison test. The significance level adopted was 5% and the analysis was performed by the softwares STATA (version 12.0) and GraphPad Prism 3.0.The median of IL-17 and IFN-γ plasma levels were significant higher in the group with higher rHuEPO dosage. However, this association was not observed in the dialysate levels, as well as was not observed a relationship between the other plasma and dialysate cytokines evaluated in this study and the dose of rHuEPO.Our study found increased IL-17 and IFN-γ plasma, but no dialysate levels, in patients receiving higher doses of rHuEPO, suggesting may exist a relationship between systemic inflammation of ESRD, and the necessary levels of rHuEPO for the correction of anemia in these patients.A common complication in patients undergoing PD is a chronic inflammatory and anemia.A correction of anemia by rHUEPO contributes to greater patient survival.Some patients experience erythropoiesis-stimulating agents hyporesponsiveness.Inflammation can have play an important role in hyporesponsiveness.Association between higher IL-17 and IFN-γ plasma levels and higher rHuEPO doses.