Chemerin is an adipokine with established roles in inflammation, adipogenesis and the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Extracellular proteolytic processing of chemerin generates a spectrum of isoforms that differ significantly with respect to the ability to activate the cognate receptors chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) and G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1). Increased total serum chemerin has been widely reported in obese humans as well as in preclinical rodent models of adiposity. However, very little information is available regarding the correspondence, if any, of changes in total serum chemerin protein with chemerin bioactivity.Methods:
Total serum chemerin and ex vivo CMKLR1 and GPR1 activation was compared using two widely used murine obesity models: high fat diet feeding (HFD) and leptin deficiency (ob/ob).Results:
Total serum chemerin levels and ex vivo CMKLR1 and GPR1 activation were significantly induced in HFD. The bioactivity ratio (bioactive chemerin/total chemerin) was also increased when measured with CMKLR1, but not GPR1. In contrast, while ob/ob mice exhibited increased total serum chemerin protein, ex vivo receptor activation was observed with GPR1, but not CMKLR1. There was no change in bioactivity ratio for either receptor. Of note, GPR1 but not CMKLR1 bioactivity positively correlated with adipose tissue inflammation.Conclusions:
While increased total serum chemerin is a consistent finding among rodent obesity models, this may not accurately reflect changes in chemerin bioactivity which is the major determinant of biological effects.