TLR11 or TLR12 silencing reducesLeishmania majorinfection

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HIGHLIGHTSTLR11 and TLR12 expression is increased by virulent Leishmania major parasites.TLR2-LPG interaction augments TLR11 and TLR12 expression.IL-10 increases TLR11 and TLR12 expression.TLR11 and TLR12 silencing reduces parasite growth.The anti-leishmanial effect is accompanied by Th1 response.Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce host-protective immune response. The role of the profilin-recognizing TLR11/TLR12 in Leishmania infection is unknown. Herein, we report that TLR11/ TLR12 expression increases in virulent L. major-infected macrophages but is prevented by miltefosine, an anti-leishmanial drug. While lipohosphoglycan (LPG) increases, LPG or TLR2 blockade prevents, the heightened TLR11/TLR12 expression. LPG-TLR2 interaction triggers MyD88- and TIRAP-mediated signaling enhancing ERK-1/2 activation and increased production of IL-10 that promotes TLR11/TLR12 expression. Profilin expression was higher in the virulent L. major and L. donovani parasites than that observed in the avirulent parasites. TLR11 or TLR12 silencing reduces parasite burden and increases IFN-γ, but reduces IL-4, production indicating that TLR11 and TLR12 play a pro-leishmanial role.

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