|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Tumor cell derived DAMPs interact with TLRs to trigger local and central effects.The local effects include tumor cells organization and microenvironment alteration.The central effects via T cell activation and trafficking add to the local effects.DAMP-TLR signals reciprocally alter angiogenesis, metastasis and T cell trafficking.The DAMP-TLR signaling and its effector functions may be targets for cancer therapy.Random mutations leading to loss of cell cycle control is not a rare occurrence in an organism but the mutated cells are recognized and eliminated preventing the development of a tumor. These potentially tumorigenic cells release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages and dendritic cells. The initial TLR-DAMP interactions lead to different responses such as altered antigen presentation and cytokine release that directly affect T cell activation and removal of the tumorigenic cells. The indirect effects of TLR-DAMP interaction include chemokine-directed altered T cell trafficking, angiogenesis for both T cell infiltration and tumor cell metastasis, and alteration of intra-tumoral milieu contributing to the development of tumor cells heterogeneity. Thus, the initial TLR-DAMP interaction has a set of local effects that modulate tumor cell growth and heterogeneity and a disseminating set of central effects that dynamically affect T cell trafficking and functions. Herein, we argue that the DAMP-TLR-cytokine axis in the tumor microenvironment serves as the mainstay that orchestrates and regulates the pro- and anti-tumor elements which dynamically interact between themselves eventuating in tumor regression or growth. The knowledge of this TLR-based immuno-surveillance framework is a key to developing a novel immunotherapy against cancer.