In sepsis, trauma and major surgery, where an explicit physiological insult leads to a significant systemic inflammatory response, the acute evolution of biomarkers have been delineated. In these settings, Interleukin (IL) -6 and TNF-α are often the first pro-inflammatory markers to rise, stimulating production of acute phase proteins followed by peaks in anti-inflammatory markers. Patients undergoing SPKT as a result of diabetic complications already have an inflammatory phenotype as a result of uraemia and glycaemia. How this inflammatory response is affected further by the trauma of major transplant surgery and how this may impact on graft survival is unknown, despite the recognised pro-inflammatory cytokines' detrimental effects on islet cell function.
The aim of the study was to determine the evolution of biomarkers in omentum and serum in the peri-operative period following SPKT. The biochemical findings were correlated to clinical outcomes.
Two omental biopsies were taken (at the beginning and end of surgery) and measured for CD68+ and CD206+ antibodies (M1 and M2 macrophages respectively). Serum was measured within the first 72 h post-SPKT for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL -6, -10 and TNF-α), inflammatory markers (WCC and CRP) and endocrine markers (insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and resistin).
46 patients were recruited to the study. Levels of M1 (CD68+) and M2 (CD206+) macrophages were significantly raised at the end of surgery compared to the beginning (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively). Levels of C-peptide, insulin and glucagon were significantly raised 30 min post pancreas perfusion compared to baseline and were also significantly negatively related to prolonged cold ischaemic time (CIT) (p < 0.05). CRP levels correlated significantly with the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey (p < 0.05).
The temporal inflammatory marker signature after SPKT is comparable to the pattern observed following other physiological insults. Unique to this study, we find that CIT is significantly related to early pancreatic endocrine function. In addition, this study suggests a predictive value of CRP in peri-operative morbidity following SPKT.