Omega-3 fatty acids have the potential to decrease inflammation and modify gene transcription. Whether docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation can modify systemic inflammatory and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in HIV-infected patients is unknown.Methods:
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 84 antiretroviral-treated patients who had fasting TG levels from 2.26 to 5.65 mmol/l and received DHA or placebo for 48 weeks was performed (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02005900). Systemic inflammatory and SAT gene expression was assessed at baseline and at week 48 in 39 patients.Results:
Patients receiving DHA had a 43.9% median decline in fasting TG levels at week 4 (IQR: −31% to −56%), compared with −2.9% (−18.6% to 16.5%) in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and arachidonic acid levels significantly decreased in the DHA group. Adipogenesis-related and mitochondrial-related gene expression did not experience significant changes. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) significantly decreased in the placebo group. SAT inflammation-related gene expression (Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1]) significantly decreased in the DHA group.Conclusions:
DHA supplementation down-regulated inflammatory gene expression in SAT. DHA impact on markers of systemic inflammation was restricted to hsCRP and arachidonic acid.