Tumor-derived cytokines impair myogenesis and alter the skeletal muscle immune microenvironment

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Muscle wasting is a decline in skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with aging, obesity, and a spectrum of pathologies including cancer. Cancer-associated wasting not only reduces quality of life, but also directly impacts cancer mortality, chemotherapeutic efficacy, and surgical outcomes. There is an incomplete understanding of the role of tumor-derived factors in muscle wasting and sparse knowledge of how these factors impact in vivo muscle regeneration. Here, we identify several cytokines/chemokines that negatively impact in vitro myogenic differentiation. We show that one of these cytokines, CXCL1, potently antagonizes in vivo muscle regeneration and interferes with in vivo muscle satellite cell homeostasis. Strikingly, CXCL1 triggers a robust and specific neutrophil/M2 macrophage response that likely underlies or exacerbates muscle repair/regeneration defects. Taken together, these data highlight the pleiotropic nature of a novel tumor-derived cytokine and underscore the importance of cytokines in muscle progenitor cell regulation.

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