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TB relapse is related to a failure of the host immune system to control the M.tb.Th1 response elevated, but Th2 and Th17 response reduced in Treated TB patients.IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-7, and CD54 levels were elevated during effective re-treatment.Elevated IL-2/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-10 were indicators for effective re-treatment.Relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is associated with a failure of the host immune system to control the invading Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Severe immunodeficiency or immune disorders may be the main reason for TB recurrence. This study aimed to quantify serum inflammatory cytokine and soluble adhesion molecule levels in Re-treated smear-positive PTB patients before and after re-anti-TB drug therapy. Serum samples were collected from 30 healthy controls and 215 Treated active PTB patients at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 months post-re-treatment. Levels of 18 serum cytokines and soluble adhesion molecules were measured by a high-throughput Cytometric Bead Array. At baseline, IL-1, IL-2, IL-12P70, and soluble CD62E levels were significantly higher in PTB patients than those in the healthy controls (p < 0.05); IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-21, soluble CD54, MIG, and TGF-β levels in PTB patients were significantly lower than those in the healthy controls (p < 0.05), of which TGF-β, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, soluble CD54, and MIG were most notably (p < 0.0005). After re-treatment, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-7, and soluble CD54 levels and IL-2/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-10 ratios showed an upward trend during the re-treatment period. They were more sensitive than other cytokines and adhesion molecules and could be effective as serum indicators for re-treatment response. The immune response was imbalance in treated smear-positive PTB patients: Th1 response was elevated, but Th2 and Th17 responses were reduced. Systematic and comprehensive understanding of the cytokine and soluble adhesion molecule profiles provides a theoretical basis for immuno-diagnosis, immunotherapy, and immuno-monitoring of Re-treated PTB patients.