Vicenin-2, a C-glycoside flavone that is present in many plant sources, exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in a number of cell and animal models of inflammation. Ten-eleven translocation (TET)-2 has recently gained considerable attention due to the role it plays in regulating the inflammasome. We studied the ability of Vicenin-2 (V-2) to regulate a range of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated inflammatory activities in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and human primary mononuclear cells. We also investigated the action of V-2 on the secretion of NLRP3 inflammasome regulated cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18) by ELISA, and determined if V-2 can regulate the expression of NLRP3, IL-10, IL-1Ra and TET-2. The effect of V-2 on NF-κB signalling was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and gene reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of V-2 on LPS-induced phosphorylation of IKB-α was also investigated by Western blot analysis.
V-2 down-regulated LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), in both THP-1 and primary mononuclear cells. V-2 also decreased the LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-18 in THP-1 cells. V-2 significantly down-regulated TNF-α induced NF-κB reporter activity in HEK293T transfected cells and attenuated IKB-α phosphorylation in THP-1 cells. V-2 treatment also induced enhanced nuclear staining of the p50 subunit and reduced p65 subunit of NF-κB.
V-2 treatment alone increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and the regulator of the inflammasome; IL-1Ra, in the presence of LPS. V-2 also significantly decreased LPS-induced NLRP3 expression while concomitantly increasing TET-2 expression.
This study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory actions of V-2 are associated not only with increased IL-10 and IL-1Ra expression, but also with TET-2 up-regulation. Further work is required to establish if the effects of V-2 can be definitively linked to TET-2 activity and that these actions are mirrored in a range of relevant cell types.