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Transcription factors and cytokines evaluation at first episode of Multiple sclerosis and Neuro-behçet disease.IL-10 in CSF as a discriminative marker between Multiple sclerosis and Neuro-Behçet disease.In initial blood, increased Tbet expression in NB patients only and elevated IFN-γ expression in MS or NB.Enhanced CSF samples inflammation assessed by ROR-γt, IL-17a and IFN-γ in patients compared to controls.Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuro-Behçet’s Disease (NBD) are two recurrent disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) by causing inflammation and irreversible damage. Inaugural clinical symptoms for both diseases might be very similar and definitive diagnosis could be delayed. The present study aimed to find out possible differences at early stages in the transcription factors/cytokines expression profiles in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS and NBD patients which could be useful discriminative markers. Cytokines and transcription factors related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory populations were studied by quantitative RT-PCR simultaneously in PBMCs and CSF, from 40 patients presenting a first episode of clinical features related to CNS inflammation and 22 controls with non inflammatory neurological diseases enrolled mainly for severe headache. The follow up of 12 months did allow a definitive diagnosis of remitting relapsing MS (RRMS) in 21 patients and of NBD in the other 19 among those with CNS inflammation compared to controls. In initial blood samples, T-bet was significantly increased in NBD patients only while IFN-γ was elevated in patients who evolved into RRMS or NBD. IL-17a, GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly lower in RRMS patients than in the NBD group. In initial CSF samples, ROR-γt, IL-17a and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls. The most striking finding was the significant increase of CSF IL-10 that we did observe in NBD patients only. Thus, we propose CSF IL-10 as a predictive marker to help clinicians discriminating between these two neurological disorders.