Vitamin D is a molecule that modulates the immune response and shows anti-inflammatory effects that are beneficial for the control of chronic diseases such as asthma. The trial aim was to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of allergic asthmatic patients.Methods
This study was conducted in 86 patients between 18 and 50 years of age who were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received the treatment recommended by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). One group also received calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), and the other group received a placebo. At baseline and 6 months, skin prick tests were conducted, pharyngeal bacterial cultures were performed, and cathelicidin LL-37 was measured in sputum. Serum levels of IgE, eosinophils, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, and IFNγ were quantified at the beginning and the end of the study.Results
Serum levels of IL-10 and IFNγ increased significantly in the group of patients with vitamin D supplementation, while IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 decreased significantly. At the end of the trial, IgE and eosinophil levels significantly decreased but allergen sensitivity did not show any changes from baseline. Respiratory infections were drastically reduced, and this decrease was related to the number of patients who had high serum levels of IL-10 and IFNγ and expressed LL-37 in their sputum.Conclusion
Treatment of asthma patients with vitamin D reduced respiratory infections, and this effect was related to the increase of cathelicidin LL-37.