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Fusarium spp. and Scedosporium spp. have emerged as important fungal pathogens that are frequently resistant to antifungal compounds. We investigated the effects of human interleukin-15 (IL-15) on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum as well as Scedosporium prolificans and Scedosporium apiospermum. IL-15 (100 ng/ml) significantly enhanced PMNL-induced hyphal damage of both Fusarium spp. and S. prolificans after incubation for 22 h (P < 0.01) but not S. apiospermum. In addition, IL-15 enhanced PMNL oxidative respiratory burst evaluated as superoxide anion production in response to S. prolificans but not to the other fungi after 2 h incubation. IL-15 increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) release from PMNLs challenged with hyphae of F. solani and S. prolificans (P ≤ 0.04). Release of tumor necrosis factor-α was not affected. The species-dependent enhancement of hyphal damage and induction of IL-8 release suggest that IL-15 plays an important role in the immunomodulation of host response to these emerging fungal pathogens.